Intel 8085 microprocessor architecture.

Posted: July 13, 2010 in CSE
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Memory

Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. The total addressable memory size is 64 KB.

Program memory – program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump, branch and call instructions use 16-bit addresses, i.e. they can be used to jump/branch anywhere within 64 KB. All jump/branch instructions use absolute addressing.

Data memory – the data can be placed anywhere as the 8085 processor always uses 16-bit addresses.

Stack memory is limited only by the size of memory. Stack grows downward.

First 64 bytes in a zero memory page should be reserved for vectors used by RST instructions.

Interrupts

The 8085 microprocessor has 5 interrupts. They are presented below in the order of their priority (from lowest to highest):

INTR is maskable 8080A compatible interrupt. When the interrupt occurs the processor fetches from the bus one instruction, usually one of these instructions:

  • One of the 8 RST instructions (RST0 – RST7). The processor saves current program counter into stack and branches to memory location N * 8 (where N is a 3-bit number from 0 to 7 supplied with the RST instruction).
  • CALL instruction (3 byte instruction). The processor calls the subroutine, address of which is specified in the second and third bytes of the instruction.

RST5.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 2Ch (hexadecimal) address.

RST6.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 34h (hexadecimal) address.

RST7.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 3Ch (hexadecimal) address.

Trap is a non-maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 24h (hexadecimal) address.

All maskable interrupts can be enabled or disabled using EI and DI instructions. RST 5.5, RST6.5 and RST7.5 interrupts can be enabled or disabled individually using SIM instruction.

I/O ports

256 Input ports
256 Output ports

Registers

Accumulator or A register is an 8-bit register used for arithmetic, logic, I/O and load/store operations.

Flag is an 8-bit register containing 5 1-bit flags:

  • Sign – set if the most significant bit of the result is set.
  • Zero – set if the result is zero.
  • Auxiliary carry – set if there was a carry out from bit 3 to bit 4 of the result.
  • Parity – set if the parity (the number of set bits in the result) is even.
  • Carry – set if there was a carry during addition, or borrow during subtraction/comparison.

General registers:

  • 8-bit B and 8-bit C registers can be used as one 16-bit BC register pair. When used as a pair the C register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use BC register as a data pointer.
  • 8-bit D and 8-bit E registers can be used as one 16-bit DE register pair. When used as a pair the E register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use DE register as a data pointer.
  • 8-bit H and 8-bit L registers can be used as one 16-bit HL register pair. When used as a pair the L register contains low-order byte. HL register usually contains a data pointer used to reference memory addresses.

Stack pointer is a 16 bit register. This register is always incremented/decremented by 2.

  • 8-bit B and 8-bit C registers can be used as one 16-bit BC register pair. When used as a pair the C register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use BC register as a data pointer.
  • 8-bit D and 8-bit E registers can be used as one 16-bit DE register pair. When used as a pair the E register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use DE register as a data pointer.
  • 8-bit H and 8-bit L registers can be used as one 16-bit HL register pair. When used as a pair the L register contains low-order byte. HL register usually contains a data pointer used to reference memory addresses.

Stack pointer is a 16 bit register. This register is always incremented/decremented by 2.

Instruction Set

Instruction set of Intel 8085 microprocessor consists of the following instructions:

  • Data moving instructions.
  • Arithmetic – add, subtract, increment and decrement.
  • Logic – AND, OR, XOR and rotate.
  • Control transfer – conditional, unconditional, call subroutine, return from subroutine and restarts.
  • Input/Output instructions.
  • Other – setting/clearing flag bits, enabling/disabling interrupts, stack operations, etc.

Addressing modes

Register – references the data in a

register or in a register pair.
Register indirect – instruction specifies register pair containing address, where the data is located.
Direct.
Immediate – 8 or 16-bit data.

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Comments
  1. adarsh ranjan rai says:

    awesum…..a benchmark 4 engineers…

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